Michalis N. Koutsoulis James Campbell


The present study examines the influence of the home environment on high school students' motivation and achievement and how it differs among genders, setting of the residential area and socioeconomic status (SES). Home environment was considered the combination of SES and parental behaviour factors. A stratified random sample of thirty five classrooms (745 students and their parents) from eight schools in all cities was selected as a representative sample for the high school students in Cyprus. The data were analyzed by LISREL.8 (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1993) and by t-test within SPSS (Nie, Hull, Jenkins, Steinbrenner, and Bernt, 1990). Their indications, as well as the relevant suggestions of the results are thoroughly discussed, in view of the existing social conditions in Cyprus.



high school students, motivation, achievement, gender differences, socioeconomic status, home environment, social conditions in Cyprus

Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1977). "Attitude-Behavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of empirical research." Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888-918.

Apostal, R. and Bilden, J. (1991). "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Highschool students." Journal of Career Development, 18, 153-160.

Asher, H. B. (1983). Causal Modeling. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Ayalon, H. and Yuchtman-Yaar, E. (1989). "Educational Opportunities and Occupational Aspirations: A Two Dimensional Approach." Sociology of Education,
62, 208-219.

Beane, J. A. and Lipka, R. P. (1986). Self-concept, Self-esteem, and the Curriculum. New York Teachers College Press.

Braxton, J. M., Duster, M. and Pascarella, E. T. (1988). "Causal Modeling and Path Analysis: An Introduction and an Illustration in Student Attrition Research."
Journal of College Student Development, 29, 263-272.

Brophy, J. (1987). "On Motivating Students." In D. C. Berliner and B. V. Rosenshine (eds.), Talks to Teachers. New York: Random House.

Byrne, B. M., and Shavelson, R. J. (1987). "Adolescent Self-concept: Testing the Assumption of Equivalent Structure Across Gender." American Educational
Research Journal, 24, 365-385.

Byrne, B. M. Shavelson, R. J. and Marsh, H. W. (1992). "Multigroup Comparisons in Self-concept Research: Reexamining the Assumption of Equivalent Structure and Measurement." In T. M. Brinthaupt, and R. P. Lipka (eds.), The Self: Definitional and methodological issues (pp. 172-203). Albany, NY: State University
of New York.

Calsyn, R. and Kenny, D. E. (1977). "Self-concept" of Ability and Perceived Evaluations by Others: Cause or Effect of Academic Achievement?" Journal of
Educational Psychology, 69, 136-145.

Campbell, J. R. (1994). Differential Socialization in Mathematics Achievement: Cross-national and Cross-cultural Perspectives. New York: Pergamon.

Campbell, J. R. and Mandel, F. (1990). "Connecting Math Achievement to Parental Influences." Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 64-74.

Campbell, J. R. and Wu, R. (1994). "Gifted Chinese Girls Get the Best Mix of Family Processes to Bolster Their Math Achievement." In J. R. Campbell (ed.), Differential Socialization in Mathematics Achievement: Cross-national and CrossCultural Perspectives (pp. 685-695). New York: Pergamon.

Campbell, J. R. and Koutsoulis, M. K. (1995/April}. Differential Socialization in a Multicultural Setting Effects Academic Achievement. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Francisco, CA.

Cohen, J. (1987). "Parents as Educational Models and Definers." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 339-351.

Crites, J. 0. (1969). Vocational Psychology: The Study of Vocational Behavior and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Feldhusen, J. F. and Willard-Holt, C. (1993). "Gender Differences in Classroom Interactions and Career Aspirations of Gifted Students." Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 355-362.

Fleming, L. (1982). Parental Influence on the Educational and Career Decisions of Hispanic Youth. Washington, D. C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 242 825).

Flouris, G. (1989). Parental Influence, Self-concept and Achievement: A national study (in Greek). Athens: Grigoris.

Flouris, G., Calogiannakis-Hourdakis, P., Spiridakis, J . and Campbell, J. R. (1994). ''Tradition and Socio-economic Status are Greek Keys to Academic Success." In J. R. Campbell (ed.), Differential Socialization in Mathematics Achievement: Cross-national and cross-cultural Perspectives (pp. 705-711). New York: Pergamon.

Frangudaki, A. (1985). Sociology of Education: Theories of the Social Inequality in the School (in Greek). Athens: Papazisis.

Frese, W., Mohan, Y. R. and Sollie, C. R. (1979). Educational Aspirations and Achievements of Rural and Small Town Mississippi Youth. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 014 832).

Haas, T. (1992). What Can I Become: Educational Aspirations of Students in Rural America, Charleston, WV. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED 018 743).

Haladyna, T., Shaughnessy, J. and Shaughnessy, J. M. (1983). "A Causal Analysis of Attitude toward Mathematics." Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 14, 19-29.

Haladyna, T. and Thomas, G. (1979). 'The attitudes of elementary school children toward school and subject matters." Journal of Experimental Education, 48, 18-23.

Hansford, 8. C. and Hattie, J. A. (1982). "Relationship between Self and Achievement/Performance Measures." Review of Educational Research, 52, 123-142.

Harty, H., Samuel, K. V. and Beall, D. (1986). "Exploring Relationships among Four Science Teaching-learning Attributes of Sixth Grade Students." Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 51-60.

Haslett, B. J. (1976). "Attitudes toward Teachers as a Function of Student Academic Self-concept." Research in Higher Education, 4, 41-58.

ldowu, A. I. and Dere, A. 0. (1983). "Socioeconomic Status and Occupational Aspirations of High School Seniors in Nigeria." Journal of Employment Counseling, 20, 186-192.

Jacobs, J. E. (1991). "Influence of Gender Stereotypes on Parent and Child Mathematics Attitudes." Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 518-527.

Joreskog, K. and S6rbom, D., (1993). LISREL8: Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Johnson, S. T. (1992). "Extra-school Factors in Achievement, Attainment, and Aspiration among Junior and Senior High School-age African American Youth." Journal of Negro Education, 61, 99-119.

Keeves, J.P. (1988). "The Methods of Educational Inquiry." In J.P. Keeves (ed.) Educational Research, Methodology, and Measurement: An International Handbook (pp. 3-8). New York: Pergamon.

Keith, T. Z. (1988). "Using Path Analysis to Test the Importance of Manipulable Influences on School Learning." School Psychology Review, 17, 637-643.

Kelly, K. R. and Jordan, L. K. (1990). "Effects of Academic Achievement and Gender on Academic and Social Self-concept: A Replication Study." Journal of Counseling and Development, 69, 173-177.

Koutsoulis, M. (1996). "Students' aspirations and school achievement: Empirical data from Cypriot highschools." (in Greek) New Pedeia, 79, 25 - 39.

Kysel, F., West, A. and Scott, G. (1992). "Leaving school: Attitudes, Aspirations and Destinations of Fifth Year Leavers in Tower Hamlets." Educational Research, 34, 87-106.

Leung, J. J. (1993). "Children's Attitudes toward Schoolwork and Perception of Parental Behaviors that Support Schoolwork." Oshkosh, WI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 357 859).

Lynch, R. (1991). Cooperative Learning, Self-concept and Academic Achievement: A Theoretical Argument for Self-concept as Mediating the Relationship Between Cooperative Learning and Academic Achievement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED 359 278).

Marjoribanks, K. (1979). "Family Environments." In H. Walberg (ed.), Educational Environments and Effects (pp. 78-90). Berkeley, CA: Mccutchan.

Marjoribanks, K. (1986). "Cognitive and Environment Correlates of Aspirations: Attitude Group Differences." Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 1, 95-103.

Marsh, H. W., Byrne, B. M. and Shavelson, R. J. (1988). "A Multifaceted Academic Self-Concept: Its Hierarchical Structure and Its Relation to Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 366-380.

Marsh, H. W., Byrne, B. M. and Shavelson, R. J. (1992). "A Multidimensional, Hierarchical Self-concept." In T. M. Brinthaupt, and R. P. Lipka (eds.), The Self: Definitional and Methodological Issues (pp. 44-95). Albany, NY: State University of New York.

McCracken, J. D., Barcinas, J. D. (1989, October). "Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Ohio Rural and Urban Twelfth-grade Students." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Educational Research Association, Chicago IL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 017 456).

McDermott, K. G., Conn, P. A. and Owen, J. W. (1987). "The Influence of Parental Education Level on College Choice." The Journal of College Admissions, 115, 3-10.

Mims, G. L. (1985). "Aspiration, Expectation, and Parental Influences among Upward Bound Students in Three Institutions." Educational and Psychological Research, 5(3), 181-190.

Mylonas T. N. (1982). The Reproduction of The Social Classes through the Mechanism of the School. Secondary Education in the Rural and Urban Areas (« Η αναπαραγωγή των κοινωνικών τάξεων μέσα από τους σχολικούς μηχανισμούς: Η μέση εκπαίδευση στο χωριό και στην πόλη» ). Athens: Gregoris.

Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G. Steinbrenner, K. and Bernt, D. H. (1990).

SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. New York, NY: McGraw.

Noonan, R. D. and Word, H. (1988). "Partial Least Squares Path Analysis." In J. P. Keeves (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Educational Research (pp. 710- 716). Oxford: Pergamon.

Pirgiotakis, I. E. (1996). Socialization and Educational Inequality (in Greek). Athens: Gregoris.

Pitiyanuwat, S. and Campbell, J. R. (1994). "Socio-economic Status Has Major Effects on Math Achievement, Educational Aspirations and Future Job Expectations of Elementary School Children in Thailand." In J. R. Campbell (ed.), Differential socialization in mathematics achievement: Cross-national and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 713- 721). New York: Pergamon.

Purkey, W.W. (1970). Self-concept and School Achievement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Republic of Cyprus (1994). Statistics in Education. Department of statistics and Research. Nicosia: Ministry of Finance.

Shaughnessy, J.M., and Haladyna, T. M. (1985). "Research on Student Attitudes toward Social Studies. Social Education," 49, 692-695.

Shaw, R. (1983). Academic Achievement and Self-concept of Academic Ability: A Four Year Longitudinal Study. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service no. ED 239 141).

Smith, T. E. (1982). "The Case for Parental Transmission of Educational Goals: The Importance of Accurate Offspring Perceptions." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 661-674.

Smith, T. E. (1989). "Mother-father Differences in Parental Influence on School Grades and Educational Goals." Sociological Inquiry, 59, 88-98.

Solorzano, D. G. (1992). "An Exploratory Analysis of the Effects of Race, Class, and Gender on Student and Parent Mobility Aspirations." Journal of Negro Education, 61, 30-43.

Song, I. S. and Hattie, J. (1984). "Home Environment, Self-concept, and Academic Achievement: A Causal Modeling Approach." Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 1269-1281.

Stafford, L. and Bayer, C. L (1993). Interaction between Parents and Children. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Stage, F. K. (1989). "An Alternative of Path Analysis: A Demonstration of LISREL Using Students Commitment to an Institution." Journal of College Student Development, 30, 129-135.

Stone, J. R. (1988). "The Contributions of Vocational Education to Career Aspirations, Work Attitudes, and Academic Achievement in High School." Journal of Vocational Educational Research, 13, 19-33.

Taylor, L. K. and Michael, W B. (1991). "A Correlational Study of Academic Self concept, Intellectual Achievement Responsibility, Social Cognition, and Reading." Educational Research Quarterly, 6, 13-23.

Thompson, M. S., Alexander, K. L., and Entwisle, D. R. (1988). "Household Composition, Parental Expectations, and School Achievement." Social Forces, 67, 424-451.

Tzani, M. (1983). School Success: Subject of Social Class and Culture. (Σχολική επιτυχία: Ζήτημα ταξικής προέλευσης και κουλτούρας ). Athens: Mavrommatis.

Walberg, H. J. (1984). "Improving the Productivity of America's Schools." Educational Leadership, 41(8), 19-30.

Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., and Walberg, H. J. (1993). "Toward a Knowledge Base for School Learning." Review of Educational Research, 63, 249-294.