Desire industries have emerged as a major social relation of seduction under the Neoliberal Imperium. Through the household domestic and entertainment reproductive sectors, the desire industries promise fulfilment, while intimately tying freedom and prosperity with securitisation for individuals and states alike and preserving wealth through access to the market, the state, and masculine power for what comes to be constituted as the bourgeois and white elite. More concretely, this paper examines how the “higher income generating” peripheries of Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey actively participate in bringing female migrant labour from “lower income generating” countries. Albeit in contradictory ways, these countries work toward realising the historical tendencies of capital by feminising, racialising, sexualising, and constituting the subject of exploitation as a threat to the (re)production of the neoliberal imperium’s relations. Through the “import” and exploitation of cheap reproductive labour for what is referred to in this article as the “desire” or sex industries, these peripheries work toward realising the (re)production of neoliberalism, albeit with strategies, activities, contestations, and struggles. Female migrants face daily violence as their labour is exploited to realise the historical tendencies of capital, and yet, these working class migrant women exceed capital’s push and attempt to seize their corporeal bodies, and/or appropriate their feminine labour. They invest time and energy toward constituting communities that do not exploit, violate, appropriate, and indeed, kill their bodies. In moving to realise this potential, the creative power of labourers, as producers of their own communities, is crucial toward social and self-affirmation and social and selfrealisation.
Agathangelou, A. M. (2004) The Global Political Economy of Sex: Desire, Violence and Insecurity in Mediterranean Nation-States. London, MacMillan/Palgrave.
Agathangelou, A. M. (2005) ‘Colonizing Desires: Bodies for Sale, Exploitation and (In) Security in Desire Industries’. Invited Presentation at the Captive Daughters Conference, Chicago, United States, March 2005.
Agathangelou, A.M. and Kyle, D. Killian (2006) ‘Epistemologies of Peace: Poetics, Globalisation, and the Social Justice Movement’, Globalisations, Vol. 3, No. 4 (December), pp. 459-483.
Agathangelou, A.M., Bassichis, D. and Spira, T. (forthcoming) ‘Intimate Investments: Homonormativity, Global Lockdown, and the Seductions of Empire’.
Agathangelou, A.M. and Ling, L.H.M. (2003) ‘Desire Industries: Sex Trafficking, UN Peacekeeping, and the New World Order’, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 133-148.
Aguilar, D. (2004) ‘Questionable Claims: Colonialism Redux’ in Aguilar, D.D. and Lacsamana, A.E. (eds.), Women and Globalisation. New York, Humanity Books, pp. 404-423. Aliens and Immigration Law 2910/2001, Greece.
Anderson, B. (2000) Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. London, Zed Books.
Anderson, B. (2004) ‘Who Needs Yehudi Menuhin? Costs and Impact of Migration’ in Aguilar, D.D. and Lacsamana, A.E. (eds.), Women and Globalisation.. New York: Humanity Books, pp. 262-277.
Anthias, F. and Lazaridis, G. (2000) Gender and Migration in Southern Europe; Women on the Move. New York, Berg Press.
Baldwin-Edwards, M. (1998) ‘The Greek Regularisation: A Comparative Analysis with the Spanish, Portuguese and Italian Experiences’. University of Reading, Centre for Euro-Mediterranean Studies, Working Paper 98/2, April [http://www.rdg.ac.uk/EIS/research], accessed 11 October 2003.
Baldwin-Edwards, M. (2002) ‘Immigration and the Welfare State: A European Challenge to American Mythology’. MMO, Working Paper, 4, November [http://www.antigone.gr./southern], accessed 11 October 2002. European Labour Markets and Immigration.
Beller-Hann, I. (1995) ‘Prostitution and its Effects in North Eastern Turkey’, The European Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 2, pp. 219 – 235.
Bhattacharjee, A. (1997) ’The Public/Private Mirage: Mapping Homes and Undomesticating Violence Work in the South Asian Immigrant Community’ in Alexander, M.J. and Talpade Mohanty, C. (eds.), Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures. New York/London, Routledge.
Bigo, D. (2002) ‘Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease’, Alternatives, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 63-92.
Brander, B., Rasmussen, I.J., Klinenberg, E., Nexica, E. and Wray, M. (2001) ‘Introduction’ in Brander, B., Rasmussen, I.J., Klinenberg, E., Nexica, E. and Wray, M. (eds.), The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness. Durham, Duke University Press, pp. 1-24.
Brenner, J. and Laslett, B. (1989) ‘Gender and Social Reproduction: Historical Perspectives’, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 15, pp. 381-404.
Briggs, L.J. (2002) Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and US Imperialism in Puerto Rico. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Cavounidis, J. (2002) ‘Migration in Southern Europe and the Case of Greece’, InternationalMigration, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 45-70.
Costera M.I. and Prins, B. (1998) ‘How Bodies Come to Matter: An Interview with Judith Butler’, Signs, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 275-286.
Cotter, J. (2001) ‘Eclipsing Exploitation: Transnational Feminism, Sex Work, and the State’, The Red Critique, (Spring) [http://redcritique.org/spring2001/eclipsingexploitation.htm], accessed 21 October 2006.
Demetriou, A. (2000) Strictly Akatallilon. Greek: From Omonia to Alkazar. Athens, Oxi.
Droukas, E. (1998) ‘Albanians in the Greek Informal Economy’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2 (April), pp. 347-365.
Ebert, T.L. (1996) Ludic Feminism and After: Postmodernism, Desire, and Labour in Late Capitalism. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.
Ebert, T. L. (2001) ‘Globalisation, Internationalism, and the Class Politics of Cynical Reason’, Nature, Society, and Thought , Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 389-410.
Emke-Papadopoulou, I. (2001) ‘Trafficking in Women and Children: Greece a Country of Destination and Transit’. MMO, Working Paper 2, August [http://www.uehr.panteion.gr/data en/3541.htm], accessed October 2003.
Enloe, C. (1989) Bananas, Beaches, and Bases. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Enloe, C. (1993) The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Enloe, C. (2000) Manoeuvres: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Erder, S. (2000) ‘New Tendencies in International Migration: Is Turkey Becoming a Receiving Country?’, in Atacan, F., Ercan, F., Kurtulus, H. and Turkey, M. (eds.), Mubeccel Kiray icin Yazila, Baglam Yayinlari. Istanbul, Baglam Yayinlari.
Erder, S. and Kaska, S. (2003) ‘Irregular Migration and Trafficking in Women: The Case of Turkey’. IOM International Organisation for Migration.
Erginsoy, F.G. (2000) ‘Female Child Sex Workers in Istanbul Metropolitan Area, Turkey: Gendered and Informal Child Labour in the City’. Paper presented at International Association for Feminist Economics, Bosporus University, Istanbul, 15-17 August.
Ergocmen B. and Yuksel, I. (2005) ‘Migration and Internally Displaced Persons in Turkey’. Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies [http://hips.hacettepe.edu.tr/tgyona/tgyona.htm], accessed 21 October 2006.
Europe against Trafficking, OSCE Report (2001) Conference Report, Berlin Conference 15-16 October [http://www.osce.org/publications/odihr/2001/01/14182_290_en.pdf], accessed 21 October 2006.
Farley, P.A. (1997) ‘The Black Body as Fetish Object’, Oregon Law Review, Vol. 76, No. 3, pp. 457-535.
Farley, P.A. (2005) ‘Accumulation’ [http://teachingfromtheleft.org/downloads/Farley_1.pdf], accessed 21 October 2006.
Frelick, B. (1997) ‘Barriers to Protection: Turkey’s Asylum Regulations’, International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 8-34.
Ghosh, B. (1998) Huddled Masses and Uncertain Shores: Insights into Irregular Migration. The Hague: IOM: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Ghosh, B. (2000) Managing Migration: Time for a New International Regime? Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Glenn, E.N. (1992) ‘From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Labour’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Vol. 18 (Spring), pp. 1-43. Global Survival Network (1997), A Conference on Trafficking, Moscow, 3-5 November.
Gülçür, L. and Ilkkaracan, P. (2002) ‘The “Natasha” Experience: Migrant Sex Workers from the Former Soviet Union in Turkey’ (forthcoming in Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 25, No. 4).
Guncikan, B. (1995) Bir Kitap: Haraso’dan Natasa’ya [From Haraso to Natasa]. Istanbul, Arion.
Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000) Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2002) Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire. London, Hamish Hamilton Book.
Hughes, D. (2000) ‘The “Natasha” Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women’, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 625-651.
Hughes, D. (2005a) ‘The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking’, June 2005 [http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/pubtrfrep.htm], accessed 15 January 2006.
Hughes, D. (2005b) ‘“How Can I Be Sold Like This?” Trafficking of North Korean Women Refugees’, National Review Online, 19 July [http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/pubtrfrep.htm], accessed 15 January 2006.
Icduygu, A. (2006) ‘The Labour Dimensions of Irregular Migration in Turkey’. CARIM: Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration. Research Report, San Domenico Di Diesole [http://www.iue.it/RSCAS/e-texts/CARIMRR2006_ 05_Icduygu.pdf], accessed 12 October 2006.
Immigration Office (2002) Contract of Employment. Nicosia, Republic of Cyprus.
International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (2006) A Form of Slavery: Trafficking Women in OSCE Member States, (June), pp. 21-24.
International Organisation of Migration (1996) Trafficking in Women to Austria for Sexual Exploitation. IOM, Geneva.
International Organisation of Migration (2001) ‘Trafficking In Migrants’, No. 23, (April) [http://www.old.iom.int/documents/publication/en/tm_23.pdf], accessed 21 October 2006.
Interior Ministry Interviews in Cyprus (2000). Nicosia, Cyprus.
Interviews with domestic workers from Rumania, Bulgaria, and Moldavia (2002). Istanbul.
Interviews with female Greek employers of domestic workers (2001). Nicosia.
Interviews with female Turkish employers of domestic workers (2000). Istanbul.
Irigaray, L. (1985) This Sex which is Not One. Translated by C. Porter. Ithaca/NY, Cornell University Press.
Johnson, C. (2000) Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire. New York, Henry Holt.
Johnson, D. (2002) ‘Russian Prostitutes Seen to Pose Threat to Turkey’s Security, Economy’. Translated by Ersin Ramoglu ‘Natashas Being Used by Secret Services’ [http://www.cdi.org/russia/johnson/6064.txt], accessed 10 October 10 2003.
Kaplan, A. (2002) The Anarchy of Empire in the Making of US Culture (Convergences: Inventories of the Present). Cambridge, Harvard Press.
Karasavvoglou, A., et. al. (1998) Foreign Workers in Kavala. Turkey, School of Social Statistics.
Katsoridas, K. (1994) ‘Foreign Workers in Greece’, Information Bulletin of Labour Institute (INE).
Kempadoo, K. and Doezema, J. (eds.) (1998) Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance, and Redefinition. New York, Routledge.
Kethi, Research Centre for Equality (2002) ‘Human Resources Information’ [http://www.kethi.gr/greek/meletes/index.htm], accessed 10 October 2001.
Kollontai, A. (1977) Selected Writings of Alexandra Kollontai. Edited and Translated by A. Holt. New York, Norton.
Kontis, A. (2000) ‘Greece as a Receiving Country of Foreign Migrants’, in Kostandinidis, S. and Pelagidis, Th. (eds.), Greece in the 21st Century, Athens, Papazisis, pp. 293-324 (in Greek). Law 4310 of 1929/Legislation regulating the status of alien immigrants, Greece.
Lazaridis, G (2001) ‘Trafficking and Prostitution: The Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women in Greece’, The European Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 8, pp. 67-102.
Lazarides, G. and Romaniszyn, K. (1996) ‘Albanian and Polish Undocumented Workers in Greece: A Comparative Analysis’, European Social Policy Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 42-56.
Lazos, G. (1997) Sexuality as a Value in Modern Greece. Athens, Delfini.
Lazos, G. (2002) Prostitution and International Trafficking in Contemporary Greece. Athens, Kastaniotis.
Loizos, P. and Papataxiarchis, E. (1991) Contested Identities: Gender and Kinship in Modern Greece. Princeton/New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
Lukacs, G. (1971) History and Class Consciousness; Studies in Marxist Dialectics. Translated by R. Livingstone. Cambridge/Mass, MIT Press.
Magganas, A. (ed.) (1994) Ta Ekdidomena Atoma. Pornia: Pareklissi h Paravasi [The Issued Persons: Prostitution: Deviation or Infringement?]. Athens, Papazisis.
Marx, K. (1976) Capital, Vol. 1. Translated by B. Fowkes. London, Penguin Books.
Marx, K. (1986) ‘Economic Manuscripts of 1857-58’ in Marx, K. and Engel, F.’s Collected Works, Vol. 28. Translated by E. Wangermann. New York, International Publishers.
Marx, K. (1990) Capital, Vol. 1. 1976. London/New York, Penguin.
Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1976) The German Ideology. Moscow, Progress Publishers.
Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1988) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. New York, Prometheus Books.
McClintock, A. (1995) Imperial Leather [electronic resource]: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest. New York, Routledge.
Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies (2006) ‘Mapping the Realities of Trafficking Women in Cyprus’ [http://www.medinstgenderstudies.org/wp/?p=16], accessed 21 October 2006.
Mies, M. (1998) Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. London/New York, Zed Press.
Mills, C. (1997) The Racial Contract. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.
Ministry of National Economy (1998). Athens, Greece.
Ministry of National Economy (1999). Athens, Greece.
Morokvasic, M. and de Tinguy, A. (1993) ‘Between East and West: A New Migratory Space’ in Rudolph, H. and Morokvasic, M. (eds.), Bridging States and Markets: International Migration in the Early 1990s. Berlin, WZB.
Nair, S. (2006) ‘Hegemony and its Discontents: Migrants, Security and the State in Southeast Asia’. Paper presented at National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan, 2 June.
Narli, N.A. (2002) Human Smuggling and Migration of Illegal Labour to Turkey. Istanbul, Marmara University.
Nilüfern, N., Türkmen, A., Ekrem, S. and Çoban, M. (2002) ‘Transit Migration and Human Smuggling in Turkey: Preliminary Findings from the Field Work’ [http://www.ucansupurge.org/newhtml/english/links/movementarchive/transitmigration.php], accessed 10 January 2002.
Organisation of Development of Human Resources (1998) Athens, Greece.
Pateman, C. (1988) The Sexual Contract. Stanford/California, Stanford University Press.
Petras, J. (1987) ‘Political Economy of State Terror: Chile, El Salvador, and Brazil’, Crime and Social Justice, No’s. 27-28, pp. 88-109.
Picchio, A. (1992) Social Reproduction: The Political Economy of the Labour Market. Great Britain, Cambridge University Press.
Pigem, J. (2003) ‘The Altered Landscape’ in We are Everywhere: The Irresistible Rise of Global Anticapitalism. Notes from Nowhere (eds.) London/New York, Verso, pp. 408-412. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime (2000) [http://www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/convention %20traff_eng.pdf], accessed 15 December 2006.
Razack, S. (1998) ‘Race, Space, and Prostitution: The Making of the Bourgeois Subject’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 338-376.
Razack, S. (2004) Dark Threats and White Knights. Canada, University of Toronto Press.
Razack, S. (2005) ‘Racial Violence and Masculinities of the New World Order: Lessons from Peacekeeping’. Presentation York University, Toronto, Canada, 8 March 2005.
Rupert, M. (1995) Producing Hegemony: The Politics of Mass Production and American Global Power. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. (1995) ‘Sexual and National Boundaries in Tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 22 (Fall), pp. 385-403.
Stoler, A. (1989) ‘Making Empire Respectable. ‘The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in Twentieth Century Colonial Cultures’, American Ethnologist, Vol. 16, pp. 26-51.
Tadiar, N. (1998) ‘Prostituted Filipinas and the Crisis of Philippine Culture’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 927-954.
Trafficking in human beings in South Eastern Europe (Belgrade, UNICEF, OHCHR and OSCE-ODIHR, June 2002).
Trafficking Protocol, United Nations Article 13 (2000) Office of the United High Commissioner for Human Rights [http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/protocoltraffic.htm], accessed 21 October 2006.
Turkey Country Report (2002) Country Report on Human Rights Practices. Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labour, US Department of State. [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18396.htm], accessed 3 January 2003.
Ucarer, E.M. (1999) ‘Trafficking in Women, the European Union, and Nongovernmental Organisations’. Paper presented at the International Studies Association, Washington, DC, 16-20 February.
Ventura, L. (1993) ‘Female Migration: Birth and Development of the Scientific Interest’, Dini, Vol. 6 (May) (in Greek).
Women against Violence, Europe, Austria (2005) ‘Violence against Women: Good Practices in Combating and Eliminating Violence against Women’, 17-20 May, Vienna Austria [http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw-gp-2005/docs/backgrou nd/wave.paper.pdf], accessed 21 October 2006.
World Conference against Racism (2001) ‘World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance’, Durban, South Africa, 31 August-8 September [http://www.un.org/WCAR/durban.pdf], accessed 21 October 2006.
Zographos, A. (1991) ‘I Katastasi ton tritokosmikon ergaton stin Ellada’ [The Condition of Third Workers in Greece], Kinoniki Ergasia, Vol. 23, pp. 165-184.
Copyright: © University of Nicosia, Cyprus
All rights reserved.
No restrictions on photo-copying.
Quotations from The Cyprus Review are welcome, but acknowledgement of the source must be given.