Laurie Johnson


This paper explores the need for and challenges involved in implementing peace education in a post-conflict region such as Cyprus. The author discusses the major components necessary to pursue systemic peace education in schools as well as the contentions associated with taking such actions in a divided society. The author provides a first-person account of her research observations in Cyprus while there in 2006 as a Fulbright Scholar and calls upon lessons learned during similar work in Northern Ireland, as a means of providing a comparative backdrop. Identified efforts in the Turkish-Cypriot and the Greek-Cypriot educational systems are discussed in the context of building the infrastructure necessary for peace education to take hold, as a societal stepping stone to reconciliation, in Cyprus.


Abu-Duhuo, I. (1999) School-based Management Indicative of Educational Planning. Paris, UNESCO.

Bahceli, S. (2007) ‘Indigenous T/C’s Just Over Half North’s Population’. Available from Cyprus Mail [http://www.cyprus-mail.com/news/main.php?id=30725&cat_id=1], accessed 25 May 2007.

Bar-Tal, D. (2000) ‘From Intractable Conflict through Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation: Psychological Analysis’, Political Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 351-365.

Batelaan, P. (2003) ‘Intercultural Education and the Challenge of Religious Diversity and Dialogue in Europe’. Proceedings of Steering Committee for Education Conference, Council of Europe, Strasbourg, March 2003.

Bodtker, A.M. and Jameson, J.K. (2001) ‘Emotion in Conflict Formation and its Transformation: Application to Organisational Conflict Management’, The International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 259-275.

Broome, B.J. (1998) ‘Overview of Conflict Resolution Activities in Cyprus: Their Contribution to the Peace Process’, The Cyprus Review, Vol. 10, No.1, pp. 47-66.

Brown, M. (1997) ‘The Causes of Internal Conflict: An Overview’ in Brown, M. et al. (eds.), Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, pp. 3-25.

Church, C., Johnson, L.S. and Visser, A. (2004) ‘A Path to Peace or Persistence? The “Single-identity” Approach to Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland’, Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 273-294.

Council of Europe (2004) Available from [www.gei.de/english/projekte/southeast/report_ann_low-beer.shtml], accessed 4 October 2004.

Council of Europe (2006) ‘Third Report on Turkey’. Available from [http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/ecri/1-ecri/2-country-by-country_approach/Turkey/Turkey_CBC_3.asp], accessed 23 June 2006.

Cozic, C.P. (ed.) (1994) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict: Current Controversies. San Diego, Greenhaven Press.

Diamond, L. and McDonald, J.W. (1996) Multi-Track Diplomacy: A Systems Approach to Peace. Washington, DC, Kumarian Press.

Duffy, T. (2000) ’Fragile Steps: Forging a Culture of Peace in Northern Ireland’. A paper presented at the Centre for Research on Peace Education (CERPE) International
Workshop, 21-26 May 2000, University of Haifa, Israel.

The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (2004) Citizenship - Made in Europe: Living Together Starts at School. Zoetermeer: The Dutch Ministry of Education and Science.

Enright, R., Gassin, E. and Knutson, J. (2003) ‘Waging Peace through Forgiveness Education in Belfast, Northern Ireland: A Review and Proposal for Mental Health Improvement of Children’, Journal of Research in Education, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 51-61.

Eralp, D.U. and Beriker, N. (2005) ‘Assessing the Conflict Resolution Potential of the EU: The Cyprus Conflict and Accession Negotiations’, Security Dialogue, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 175-192.

EUROSTAT (2004) Demographic Data. Available from [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls/portal/docs], accessed 20 June 2006].

Fisher, R. (2000) ‘Intergroup Conflict’ in Deutsch, M., Coleman, P. (eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Fisher, R. (2001) ‘Cyprus: The Failure of Mediation and the Escalation of an Identity-based Conflict to an Adversarial Impasse’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 307-326.

Fountain, S. (1999) ‘Peace Education in UNICEF’, Working Paper. Programme Division/Education.

French, J.A. (2005) ‘The Private Sector’s Share in Peace: Education to Provide Social Stability in Conflict-affected Societies’, Peace, Conflict and Development: An
Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 7, pp. 59-97.

Furlong, J. (1992) ‘Reconstructing Professionalism: Ideological Struggle in Initial Teacher Training’ in Arnot, M. and Barton, L. (eds.), Voicing Concerns: Sociological Perspectives on Contemporary Education Reforms. Brightwell-Sotwell, Triangle Books.

Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. London, Sage Publications.

Glenn, C.L. (1988) The Myth of the Common School. Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press.

Hatay, M. (2005) ‘Beyond Numbers: An Inquiry into the Political Integration of the Turkish ‘Settlers’ in Northern Cyprus’. Nicosia, Cyprus, PRIO.

Johnson, L.S. (2002) ‘The Practice of Integrated Education in Northern Ireland: The Teachers’ Perspective’. UN/INCORE Research Monograph Series. Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Available from [www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/home/publication/occasional/], accessed 29 June 2005.

Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T. (1989) Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research. Edina, MN, Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T. (1994) Leading the Cooperative School. Edina, MN, Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D., Johnson, R. and Holubec, E. (1998) Cooperation in the Classroom. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.

Jones, T.S. (2000) ‘Emotional Communication in Conflict: Essence and Impact’ in Eadie, W. and Nelson, P. (eds.), The Language of Conflict and Resolution. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, pp. 81-104.

Jones, T.S. (2005) ‘Implementing Community Peace and Safety Networks in South Africa, Theory into Practice, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 345-354.

Kelman, H.C. (1997) ‘Social-psychological Dimensions of International Conflict’ in Zartman, I.W. and Rasmussen, J. (eds.), The Handbook of Interethnic Conflict. New York,
Continuum, pp. 342-358.

Kosmacher, J. and Orifici, G. (2002) ‘Journey of Hope: Cypriot Youths Cross Atlantic Ethnic to Build Peaceful Future’, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 56-59.

Laouris, Y. (2004) ‘Information Technology in the Service of Peacebuilding – The Case of Cyprus’, World Futures, Vol. 60, pp. 67-79.

Lederach, J.P. (1997) Building Peace. Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC, United States Institute of Peace Press.

Loizou, E. (2005) ‘Cyprus Joins the European Union: Identity Shifting? Words, Feelings and Assumptions of Three Early Childhood Participants’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 101-103.

MOEC (2005) ‘2003-2004 Annual Report’. Available from [www.moec.gov.cy], accessed 22 July 2005.

OECD (2001) ‘The Well-being of Nations. The Role of Human and Social Capital.’ Paris, Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

Opotow, S. (2000) ‘Aggression and Violence’ in Deutsch, M. and Coleman, P. (eds.), The Handbook of Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Phinney, J. (1993) ‘A Three-stage Model of Ethnic Identity Development in Adolescence’ in Bernal, M. (ed.), Ethnic Identity: Formation and Transmission among Hispanics and other Minorities. Albany, State University of New York.

Phtiaka, H. (2002) ‘Teacher Education for a New World’, International Studies in Sociology of Education, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 353-374.

Pingle, F. (1999) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision. Paris, Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research.

Reardon, B. (1997) Tolerance: The Threshold of Peace. Unit 1: Teacher Training. Paris, UNESCO.

Reardon, B. (2001) Education for a Culture of Peace in a Gender Perspective. Paris, UNESCO.

Russell, R.J. (1981) The Just Peace. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications.

Tank, P. (2002) ‘Re-solving the Cyprus Problem: Changing Perceptions of State and Societal Security’, European Security, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 146-164.

Theodoulou, J. (2006) ‘Racist Youths Invade School’. Available from Cyprus Mail [http://english-cyprus.indymedia.org/newswire/display/295/index.php], accessed 23
November 2006.

Trimikliniotis, N. and Pantelides, P. (2003) ‘Mapping Discriminatory Landscapes in Cyprus: Ethnic Discrimination in the Labour Market’, The Cyprus Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 101-121.

UN Declaration for the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World, 2001-2010 (2006) Available from [www.unesco.org/education/ecp/index.htm], accessed 20 June 2006.

Ungerleider, J., Green, P. and McKernon, W. (1999) ‘Conflict Transformation Training for Professional and Youth Peacebuilders’. Available from
[www.sit.edu/publications/docs/conflict.pdf], accessed 23 May 2007.

Volkan, V. (1998) ‘The Tree Model: Psychopolitical Dialogues and the Promotion of Coexistence’ in Weiner, E. (ed.), The Handbook of Interethnic Conflict. New York,

Zuzovski, R. (1997) ‘Living Together: The Impact of the Intifada and the Peace Negotiations on Attitudes toward Coexistence of Arab and Jewish Pupils in Ethnically Segregated and Mixed Schools in Jaffa’, Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 2, pp. 37-54.