##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Andrekos Varnava

Abstract

This essay argues that Cypriot national minorities suffer from ‘internal-exclusion’ because the clash of foreign nationalisms (Greek and Turkish) and imperialisms (British, American, Greek and Turkish) in Cyprus has resulted in the domination of the ‘Greeks’ and ‘Turks’ despite the historical presence of other communities. This has also resulted in the failure to develop an indigenous Cypriot identity, one that crosses religious difference and has as its base the idea of Cyprus as a secular homeland that includes all its disparate national groups who call themselves ‘Cypriots’. Not only have both Greek and Turkish Cypriot elite, by focusing on their intercommunal problem, practised assimilation into the majority of the minority since the independence of the island from British rule in 1960, but the institutional structures from which assimilation could be implemented were imbedded into the Constitution. In the Constitution the national minorities were termed ‘religious groups’ and forced to become members of either dominant community. Thus, by being denied their place as ‘national’ minorities and regarded as religious sub-groups of one of the two dominant communities, they have suffered ‘internalexclusion’. This has had adverse effects on their rights as well as their position in Cypriot society. 

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

Cyprus, historical diversity, national minorities, Cyprus Problem, multiculturalism, identity

References
An, A. (2009) ‘The Cypriot Armenian Minority and their Cultural Relationship with the Turkish Cypriots’ in Varnava, A., Coureas, N. and Elia, M. (eds.), The Minorities of Cyprus. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 282-289.

Beckingham, C.F. (1957) ‘Islam and Turkish Nationalism in Cyprus’, Die Welt des Islams, Vol. V, No. 1-2, pp. 65-83.

Constantinou, C. (2007) ‘Aporias of Identity: Bicommunalism, Hybridity and the “Cyprus Problem”’, Cooperation and Conflict, Vol. XLII, pp. 247-270.

Constantinou, C. (2009) ‘The Protection and Revival of Cypriot Maronite Arabic’, PRIO Cyprus Centre, Policy Brief, January.

Council of Europe: Secretariat of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: Second Opinion on Cyprus, Adopted on 7 June 2007, 9 July 2008, ACFC/OP/II(2007)004, available at: [http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/ 4877777d2.html].

Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Application of the Charter in Cyprus, 2nd Monitoring Cycle, 23 September 2009, ECRML (2009) 5, available at: [http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4abb46510.html].

Coureas, N. (1997) The Latin Church in Cyprus, 1195-1312. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Coureas, N. (2005) ‘The Historical Development of Cyprus’ Present-Day Latin Community’, Journal of Mediterranean Studies, Vol. XV, No. 1, pp. 149-166.

Coureas, N. (2005) ‘Economy’ in Nicolaou-Konnari, A. and Schabel, C. (eds.), Cyprus – Society and Culture 1191-1374. Leiden: Brill, pp. 103-156.

Drousiotis, M. (2006) The First Partition. Nicosia: Alphadi.

Emilianides, A. (2009) ‘The Legal Status of the Latin Community’ in Varnava, A., Coureas, N. and Elia, M. (eds.), The Minorities of Cyprus. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 229-240.

Georghallides, G.S. (1979) A Political and Administrative History of Cyprus 1918-1926. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.

Mavratsas, C. (2000) ‘Armenian Identity and Greek Nationalism in Cyprus’, Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient Mediterranean, Vol. XXXI, pp. 197-205.

Mavratsas, C. (2003) ‘The Armenians and the Maronites of Cyprus: Comparative Considerations Concerning Ethnic Assimilation’, Travaux de la Maison de lãOrient Mediterranean, Vol. XXXVII, pp. 205-210.

Michael, M., Kappler, M. and Eftihios, G. (eds.) (2009) Ottoman Cyprus: New Perspectives. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Michell, R.L.N. (1908) ‘A Muslim-Christian Sect in Cyprus’, The Nineteenth Century and After, Vol. LXIII (May), pp. 751-762.

Minority Rights Group International (2010) State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2010 - Cyprus, 1 July 2010, available at: [http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4c33311a13.html].

Nevzat, A. (2005) Nationalism amongst the Turks of Cyprus. Finland: University of Oulu.

Nicolaou-Konnari, A. and Schabel, C. (eds.) (2005) Cyprus – Society and Culture 1191-1374. Leiden: Brill.

Nicolaou-Konnari, A. (2005)‘Greeks’ in Nicolaou-Konnari, A. and Schabel, C. (eds.), Cyprus – Society and Culture 1191-1374. Leiden: Brill, pp. 13-62.

Panteli, S. (2003) Place of Refuge: A History of the Jews in Cyprus. London: Elliott and Thompson.

Patrick, R. (1976) Political Geography and the Cyprus Conflict: 1963-1971. Ontario: University of Waterloo.

Pattie, S.P. (1997) Faith in History: Armenians Rebuilding Community. Washington/London: Smithsonian Institute Press.

Republic of Cyprus, Third Report Submitted by Cyprus Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, ACFC/SR/III(2009)005, Received 30 April 2009.

Schabel, C. (2005) ‘Religion’ in Nicolaou-Konnari, A. and Schabel, C. (eds.), Cyprus – Society and Culture 1191-1374. Leiden: Brill, pp. 157-218.

Schabel, C. (2010) ‘Martyrs and Heretics, Intolerance of Intolerance: The Execution of Thirteen Monks in Cyprus in 1231’, Greeks, Latins and the Church in Early Frankish Cyprus. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 1-33.

Schmid, A.P. and Jongman, A.J. et al (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, and Literature. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Group.

Trimikliniotis, N. and Demetriou, C. (2009) ‘The Cypriot Roma and the Failure of Education’ in Varnava, A., Coureas, N. and Elia, M. (eds.), The Minorities of Cyprus. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 241-264.

Varnava, A. (2002) ‘The Maronite Community of Cyprus: Past, Present and Future’, Al-Mashriq: A Quarterly Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. I, No. 2 (September), pp. 45-70.

Varnava, A. (2009) British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878-1915: The Inconsequential Possession. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Varnava, A. (2009) ‘The Minorities of Cyprus in the History of Cyprus Textbook for Lyceum Students’ in Varnava, A., Coureas, N. and Elia, M. (eds.), The Minorities of Cyprus. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 299-313.

Varnava, A., Coureas, N. and Elia, M. (eds.) (2009) The Minorities of Cyprus: Development Patterns and the Identity of the Internal-Exclusion. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Section
Articles