Christina Hadjisoteriou


The socio-historical context of Cyprus entails various consequences for Greek-Cypriot education. However, the distinctive character of Greek-Cypriot education does not only have historical credentials, but it is also bound to the contemporary situation that includes Cyprus’ accession to the EU. This paper explores the ways in which history influences Greek-Cypriot education. Furthermore, it examines the types of interaction between European influences and national education policies by reporting on policy-document analysis and semi-structured interviews carried out with Greek-Cypriot policy-makers. As Greek-Cypriot education has been developed in a case characterised by both inter-communal and intra-communal conflict, it has been inextricably linked to the nation-building project. The Europeanisation of Greek-Cypriot education has been merely symbolic, indicating ‘simulated’ development and implementation processes.



education, history, nation-building, Europeanisation

Alexiadou, N. (2007) ‘The Europeanisation of Education Policy: Researching Changing Governance and “New” Modes of Coordination’, Research in Comparative and International Education, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 102-116.

Constantinou, C.M. and Papadakis, Y. (2001) ‘The Cypriot State(s) in Situ: Cross-Ethnic Contact and the Discourse of Recognition’, Global Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 125-148.

Committee for Educational Reform (2004) Democratic and Humanistic Education in the Euro-Cyprian Society. Prospects for Modernisation. Manifesto of Educational Reform. Overview of Philosophy and Recommendations. Nicosia: Ministry of Education and Culture [in Greek].

Coulby, D. (1997) ‘European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare’, Comparative Education, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 29-41.

Damanakis, M. (2002) ‘Oria kai Antohes tis Diapolitismikis Pedagogikis Proseggisis se Sigkrousiakes Katastaseis. I Periptosi tis Kiprou’ [The Limits of Intercultural Pedagogical Approach in Conflict Situations. The Case of Cyprus], Epistimes Agogis. Thematiko Tefchos 2002, pp. 73-85.

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds.) (2005) Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd edition. London: Sage Publications.

Gaglar, A.S. (1997) ‘Hyphenated Identities and the Limits of “Culture”’ in Modood, T. and Werbner, P. (eds.), The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe. Racism, Identity and Community. London: Zed Books Ltd., pp. 169-185.

Gardner, P. and Cunningham, P. (1997) ‘Oral History and Teachers’ Professional Practice: A Wartime Turning Point?’, Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 331-342.

Holland, R. (1998) Britain and the Revolt in Cyprus, 1954-59. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kizilyürek, N. (2002) ‘Cyprus and the EU’, Cyprus Journal of European Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 31-48.

Kizilyürek, N. and Hadjipavlou-Trigeorgis, M. (1997) ‘An Analysis of the Cyprus Conflict: Its Structure and Causes’ in Axt, H-J. and Brey H. (eds.), Cyprus and the European Union. New Chances for Solving an Old Conflict? International Conference of the Südosteuropa-Gesellschaft, 22nd to 24th April 1999 in Munich. Munich: Sudosteuropa-Gesellschaft, pp. 10-23.

Koullapis, L. (1999) ‘Ideologiki Prosanatolismi tis Ellinokipriakis Ekpaidefsis me Emfasi to Mathima tis Istorias’ [Ideological Orientations of Greek-Cypriot Education with Emphasis on the Subject of History], Sighrona Themata, Vol. 68, pp. 276-296.

Koutselini-Ioannidou, M. (1997) ‘Curriculum as a Political Text: The Case of Cyprus (1935-90)’, History of Education, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 395-407.

Koyzis, A. (1997) ‘The Politics of Secondary School Reform in Cyprus, 1976-1993’, History of Education Society Bulletin, Vol. 59, pp. 30-36.

Kyriakides, L. (1996) ‘Reforming Primary Education in Cyprus’, Education, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 50-54. Lawn, M. and Keiner, E. (2006) ‘Editorial’, European Journal of Education, Vol. 41, pp. 153-167.

MEC – Ministry of Education and Culture (1996) National Curriculum for Primary Education. Nicosia: MEC [in Greek].

MEC – Ministry of Education and Culture (1996) (2007) Proceedings of the Meeting 11/6. Nicosia: MEC.

MEC – Ministry of Education and Culture (1996) (2010) Curricula. Pre-Primary, Primary and Middle Education. Nicosia: MEC [in Greek].

Panayiotopoulos, C. and Nicolaidou, M. (2007) ‘At a Crossroads of Civilisations: Multicultural Educational Provision in Cyprus through the Lens of a Case Study’, Intercultural Education, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 65-79.

Papadakis, Y. (1993) ‘The Politics of Memory and Forgetting in Cyprus’, Journal of Mediterranean Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 139-154.

Papadakis, Y. (1995) ‘Nationalist Imaginings of War in Cyprus’ in Hinde, R. and Watson, H. (eds.), War a Cruel Necessity? The Bases of Institutionalized Violence. London: Tauris Academic Studies, pp. 54-67.

Persianis, P. (1996) ‘The British Colonial Education “Lending” Policy in Cyprus (1878-1960): An Intriguing Example of an Elusive “Adapted Education” Policy’, Comparative Education, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 45-68.

Philippou, S. (2007) ‘On the Borders of Europe: Citizenship Education and Identity in Cyprus’, Journal of Social Science Education. Available at [http://www.jsse.org/2007/2007-1/pdf/philippou-borders-1-2007.pdf/view].

Philippou, S. and Varnava, A. (2009) ‘Constructions of Solution(s) to the Cyprus Problem: Exploring Formal Curricula in Greek-Cypriot State Schools’ in Varnava, A. and Faustmann, H. (eds.), Reunifying Cyprus: The Annan Plan and Beyond. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 194-212.

Radaelli, C.M. (2000) ‘Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change’. European Integration Online Papers (EIoP). European Community Studies Association Austria (ECSA-A), Vol. 4, Iss. 7. Available from [http://ideas.repec. org/s/erp/eiopxx.html].

Radaelli, C.M. (2003) ‘The Europeanization of Public Policy’ in Featherstone, K. and Radaelli C.M. (eds.), The Politics of Europeanization, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 27-56.

Rizvi, F. and Lingard, B. (2010) Globalizing Education Policy. Oxon: Routledge.

Spyrou, S. (2002) ‘Images of the “Other”: “the Turk” in Greek Cypriot Children’s Imaginations’, Race Ethnicity and Education, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 255-272.

Trimikliniotis, N. (2001a) ‘The Location of Cyprus in the Southern European Context: Europeanisation as Modernisation’, The Cyprus Review: A Journal of Social Economic, Political Issues, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 47-73.

Trimikliniotis, N. (2001b) ‘Europeanisation - What Potential Does it Have in the Resolution of the Cyprus Problem?’, Cyprus Journal of European Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 49-77.

Trimikliniotis, N. (2004) ‘Mapping Discriminatory Landscapes in Cyprus: Ethnic Discrimination in a Divided Education System’, The Cyprus Review: A Journal of Social Economic, Political Issues, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 85-107.

Wilson, D. (2002) Minority Rights in Education. Lessons for the European Union from Estonia, Latvia, Romania and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Norway: Elanders Novum.

Zikas, G. and Koutselini-Ioannidou, M. (2002) ‘O Ethnikos kai Diapolitismikos Logos sta Analitika Programmata Istorias kai Geografias tou Dimotikou Sholiou stin Kipro kai stin Ellada’ [National and Intercultural Discourse in History and Geography Curricula of Primary Schools in Cyprus and Greece], Epistimes Agogis. Thematiko Tefchos 2002, pp. 155-169.