The purpose of this article is to explore the possible preconditions for successful conflict management and stable federalism for a reunited Cyprus. It deals with the federal system proposed in the latest UN constitutional proposal called the Annan Plan (2002–2004) with a view to suggesting viable alternatives to the ongoing negotiations since 2008. The analysis shows that the federal model envisaged in the Plan and in the ongoing negotiations would have been unlikely to be suitable for Cyprus, because the designed federal institutions have never addressed the social, economic, political and demographic characteristics of the society. A number of changes to the proposed models for the reunification of Cyprus are needed: the normative dimension of and the institutional aspect of asymmetric federalism are needed to be examined carefully.
federalism, ethnic conflict, Cyprus, the Annan Plan, normative theory, asymmetry, pluralism
Anderson, L.M. (2010) ‘Toward a Resolution of the Paradox of Federalism’, in Erk, J. and Swenden, W. (eds), New Directions in Federalism Studies. London: Routledge, pp. 126–140.
Bakke, K.M. and Wibbels, E. (2006) ‘Diversity, Disparity, and Civil Conflict in Federal States’, World Politics, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 1–50.
Buchanan, J.M. and Tullock, G. (1962) The Calculus of Consent. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Burgess, M. (2000) Federalism and European Union: The Building of Europe, 1950–2000. London: Routledge.
Burgess, M. (2006) Comparative Federalism: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
Burgess, M. (2007) ‘What is to be Done? Bicommunalism, Federation and Confederation in Cyprus’, in Burgess, M. and Pinder, J. (eds), Multinational Federations. London: Routledge, pp. 127–149.
Burgess, M. and Gress, F. (1999) ‘Symmetry and Asymmetry Revisited’, in Agranoff, R. (ed.), Accommodating Diversity: Asymmetry in Federal States. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, pp. 43–56.
de Villiers, B. (ed.) (1994) Evaluating Federal Systems. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Dicey, A.V. (1950) Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. London: McMillan and Company.
Duchacek, I.D. (1988) ‘Dyadic Federations and Confederations’, Publius – The Journal of Federalism, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 5–32.
Elazar, D.J. (1979) Federalism and Political Integration. Tel Aviv: Turtledove Publishing.
Elazar, D.J. (1987) Exploring Federalism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Filippov, M., Ordeshook, P.C. and Shvetsova, O. (2004) Designing Federalism. A Theory of Self-Sustainable Federal Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gagnon, A-G. (2010) The Case for Multinational Federalism Beyond the All-encompassing Nation. London: Routledge.
Gianni, M. (2001) ‘Multiculturalism, Differentiated Citizenship, and the Problem of Self-Determination’, in Dallmayr, F. and Rosales, J.M. (eds), Beyond Nationalism? Sovereignty and Citizenship. New York: Lexington Books, pp. 199–220.
Hooghe, L. (2003) ‘Belgium: From Regionalism to Federalism’, in Coakley, J. (ed.), The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict. London: Frank Cass, pp. 1–22.
International Crisis Group (2009) ‘Cyprus: Reunification or Partition?’ Europe Report, No. 201, 30 September.
Cyprus 2015 Initiative (2011) ‘Solving the Cyprus Problem: Hopes and Fears’, A report by the Cyprus 2015 Initiative. Available at [http://www.interpeace.org/2011-08-08-15-19-20/latest-news/2011/87-solvingthe-cyprus-problem-hopes-and-fears], accessed on 10 October 2013.
Joseph, J.S. (1985) Cyprus: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics. London: McMillan Press.
Ker-Lindsay, J. (2005) ‘Cyprus: The Way Forward’, European Policy Centre and the ARI Movement, 27 June.
Kizilyürek, N. (2007) ‘Historical Grounds of Federal State in Cyprus’, Available at [http://www.cypruspolicycenter.org/dosyalar/niyaziKizilyurek.doc], accessed on 23 October 2013.
Kymlicka, W. (1995) Multicultural Citizenship and Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. (1998) Finding Our Way: Rethinking Ethnocultural Relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. (2001) Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism, and Citizenship, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lacovino, R. (2010) ‘Partial Asymmetry and Federal Construction: Accommodating Diversity in the Canadian Constitution’, in Weller, M. and Nobbs, K. (eds), Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 75–96.
Majeed, A. (2006) ‘Distribution of Powers and Responsibilities’, in Majeed, A., Watts, R.L. and Brown, D.M. (eds), Distribution of Powers and Responsibilities in Federal Countries. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 3–7.
McGarry, J. (2005) ‘Asymmetrical Federalism and the Plurinational State’, Draft position paper for the 3rd International Conference on Federalism, Brussels.
McRoberts, K. (1977) ‘Quebec and Canadian Political Crisis’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 433, No. 1, pp. 19–31.
McRoberts, K. (1997) Misconceiving Canada: The Struggle for National Unity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Michael, M.S. (2007) ‘The Cyprus Peace Talks: A Critical Appraisal’, Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 44, No. 5 (September), pp. 587–604.
Norman, W.J. (1994) ‘Towards a Philosophy of Federalism’, in Baker, J. (ed.), Group Rights. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 79–100.
O’Leary, B. (2010) ‘Thinking about Asymmetry and Symmetry in the Remaking of Iraq’, in Weller, M. and Nobbs, K. (eds), Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 183–212.
Papadopoulos, T. (2005) Keynote Address. 3rd International Conference on Federalism, Brussels, 3–5 March.
Palley, C. (2005) An International Relations Debacle. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Reilly, B. (2001) Democracy in Deeply Divided Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Requejo, F. (2001) ‘The Moral Foundations of Asymmetrical Federalism: A Normative Exploration of the Case of Quebec and Canada’, in Gagnon, A-G. and Tully, J. (eds), Multinational Democracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 319–337.
Requejo, F. and Nagel, K-J. (2011) Federalism beyond Federations Asymmetry and Processes of Resymmetrisation in Europe. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Richmond, O. (1996) ‘Negotiating out of Fear and Fearing to Negotiate: Theoretical Approaches to the Ending of the Cyprus Conflict’, The Cyprus Review, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Fall), pp. 99–100.
Richmond, O. (1999) ‘Ethno-Nationalism, Sovereignty and Negotiating Positions in the Cyprus Conflict: Obstacles to a Settlement’, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 35, No. 3 (July), pp. 42–63.
Rotberg, R. (2003) ‘Cyprus after the Annan Plan: Next Steps towards a Solution’, World Peace Foundation Reports, No. 37.
Saunders, C. (1995) ‘Constitutional Arrangements of Federal Systems’, Publius, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 61–80.
Schmitt, D.E. (1991) ‘Problems of Accommodation in Bicommunal Societies’, Conflict Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 7–18.
Stepan, A. (2004) ‘Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the US Model’, in Amoretti, U.M. and Bermeo, N. (eds), Federalism and Territorial Cleavages. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 441–456.
Stroschein, S. (2003) ‘What Belgium Can Teach Bosnia: The Uses of Autonomy in “Divided House” States’, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, Iss. 3, pp. 1–30.
Thorp, A. (2009) ‘Cyprus: A Political and Economic Overview’, House of Commons Library: 3-12.
Taylor, C. (1993) ‘The Deep Challenge of Dualism’, in Gagnon, A-G. (ed.), Quebec: State and Society. Toronto, Canada: Nelson, pp. 82–95.
United Nations Secretary-General (2004) The Comprehensive Settlement of the Cyprus Problem, Fifth Version. Available at [http://www.cyprus-unplan.org], accessed on 23 October 2013.
Watts, R.L. (1994) ‘Contemporary Views on Federalism’, in de Villers, B. (ed.), Evaluating Federal Systems. London: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 1–29.
Watts, R.L. (1999) Comparing Federal Systems. Montreal and Kingston: School of Policy Studies, Queen’s University.
Watts, R.L. (2001) ‘Models of Federal Power Sharing’, International Social Science Journal, Vol. 53, No. 167, pp. 23–32.
Watts, R.L. (2002) ‘The Distribution of Powers, Responsibilities and Resources in Federations’, in Griffiths, A.L. and Nerenberg, K. (eds), Handbook of Federations 2002. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 448–471.
Watts, R.L. (2005) ‘A Comparative Perspective on Asymmetry in Federations’, in Asymmetry Series 2005 (4). Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, Kingston, Ontario: Queen’s University, pp. 1–7.
Watts, R.L. (2007) ‘Multinational Federations in Comparative Perspective’, in Burgess, M. and Pinder, J. (eds), Multinational Federations. London: Routledge, pp. 225–247.
Whitaker, R. (1993) ‘The Dog That Never Barked: Who Killed Asymmetrical Federalism?’, in McRoberts, D.K. and Monahan, P. (eds), The Charlottetown Accord, the Referendum, and the Future of Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 107–116.
Denktafi, R. (former president of ‘Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus’). Personal interview, 30 July 2007.
Durduran, A. (the Turkish Cypriot leader of bi-communal New Cyprus Party). Personal interview, 5 December 2008.
Markides, A. (Attorney General of former president Clerides). Personal interview, 9 December 2008.
Olgun, E. (undersecretary of the former president Rauf Denktaş). Personal interview, 9 August 2007.
Papapetrou, M. (former spokesman to former Greek Cypriot president Clerides). Personal interview, 30 August 2007.
Palley, C. (consultant to Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Cyprus). Personal interview, 28 August 2007.
Talat, M.A. (president of ‘TRNC’). Personal interview, 18 August 2007.
Tselepis, T. (member of the negotiating group of Mr Papadopoulos from AKEL Party). Personal interview, 31 August 2007
Vipond, R. (1995) ‘From Provincial Autonomy to Provincial Equality’, in Carens, J. (ed.), Is Quebec Nationalism Just? Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 97–119.
Copyright: © University of Nicosia, Cyprus
All rights reserved.
No restrictions on photo-copying.
Quotations from The Cyprus Review are welcome, but acknowledgement of the source must be given.