##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Maria P. Michaelides

Abstract

Blockchain, artificial intelligence (AI) and other technological innovations are affecting all aspects of our societies and causing some profound changes in human resource (HR) practices in business and non-profit organizations. Critical to these high tech advances is how they will affect employment patterns and the way companies will hire their workforce, influencing HR practices and the way they will manage their employees. This paper, after a short introduction, consists of three parts. The first discusses how blockchain and AI are affecting HR practices. The second looks at hiring practices at firms, while the third discusses employment patterns in the emerging age of high-tech super-automation. There is also a concluding section, discussing the implications of the forthcoming AI on employment (or unemployment) and the inevitable income inequality that is bound to develop and affect our societies.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Keywords

blockchain technology, human resource management, artificial inteligence (AI), disruptive innovation

References
Bersin, J. (2017) ‘How will AI in HR be a game-changer?’ TechTarget. Available at http:// searchhrsoftware.techtarget.com/opinion/How-will-AI-in-HR-be-a-game-changer, accessed March 2018.

Bharadwaj, D. R. (2017) ‘Chatbots and the Future of Employee Experience’. Service Now. Available at https://servicematters.servicenow.com/2017/11/09/chatbots-and-thefuture-of-employee-experience/, accessed March 2018.

Biro, M. M. (2018, December 11) ‘Five Ways Technology is Changing the Face of HR’. Talent Culture. Available at https://talentculture.com/5-ways-technology-is-changing-the-faceof-hr/, accessed January 2019.

Buranyi, S. (2018) ‘“Dehumanising, impenetrable, frustrating”: the grim reality of job hunting in the age of AI’. The Guardian. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2018/ mar/04/dehumanising-impenetrable-frustratingthe-grim-reality-of-job-hunting-in-theage-of-ai, accessed January 2019.

Cerrone, M. (2018, October 26) ‘The Evolution of the Background Verification Industry In the Gig Era’. HRTechnologist. Available at: https://www.hrtechnologist.com/articles/background-verification/the-evolution-of-the-verification-industry-in-the-age-of-thegigworker/?utm_source=editors_pick, accessed January 2019.

BasuMallick, C. (2019, January 10) ‘3 B2C Companies Using AI to Transform their Candidate Sourcing Strategies’. HR Technologist. Available at https://www.hrtechnologist.com/ articles/recruitment-onboarding/3-companies-using-ai-to-transform-their-candidatesourcing-strategies/, accessed 12 January 2019.

Kanapi, H. (2018, February 22) ‘10 highest paid Gig economy jobs in 2018’. FitSmallBusiness. com. Available at https://fitsmallbusiness.com/gig-economy-jobs/, accessed November 2018.

Forrester (2016, September 12) ‘Forrester Predicts IoT, AI, AR, and VR Will Change the Tech World by 2021’. Available at https://www.forrester.com/Forrester+Predicts+IoT+AI+ AR+And+VR+Will+Change+The+Tech+World+By+2021/-/E-PRE9464, accessed March 2018.

Goetz, M., Purcell, B., Le Clair, C., Lo Guidice, D., Gualtieri, M., Sridharan, S., Gownder, J. P., Carlsson, K., Cullen, E., and Hoberman, E. (2018) Predictions 2019: Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: Forrster. Available at https://www.forrester.com/report/Predictions+2 019+Artificial+Intelligence/-/E-RES144617.

Gownder, J. P., Le Clair, C., Martorell, B., Gardner, C., O’Donnell, G, Condo, C., Thai, J. and Lynch, D. (2018) Predictions 2019: Automation. Cambridge, MA: Forrester. Available at https://www.forrester.com/report/Predictions+2019+Automation/-/E-RES144739#.

Gratton, L. (2018, January) ‘Davos 2018: the imperatives for job reskilling’, FoWLAB Blog [Online]. Available at: https://lyndagrattonfutureofwork.typepad.com/lynda-grattonfuture-of-work/2018/01/davos-2018-the-imperatives-for-job-reskilling-.html, accessed November 2018.

Hartog, K. (2018, May 25) ‘How blockchain could transform the core of HR’, Welcome to the Jungle [website]. Paris: Recruiters. Available at https://recruiters.welcometothejungle.co/ en/articles/how-blockchain-could-transform-the-core-of-hr, accessed January 2019.

Heric, M. (2018, October 10) ‘HR new digital mandate’. Bain & Company. Available at https:// www.bain.com/insights/hrs-new-digital-mandate/, accessed 12 January 2019.

HRT News Desk (2017, May 4) ‘Oracle Considers Using Blockchain to Boost Employee Productivity’. HR Technologist.com. Available at https://www.hrtechnologist.com/news/ hr-analytics/oracle-considers-using-blockchain-to-boost-employee-productivity/.

Illanes, P., Lund, S., Mourshed, M., Rutherford, S., Tyreman, M. (2018) ‘Retraining and reskilling workers in the age of automation’. McKinsey Global Institute. Available at https://www. mckinsey.com/featured-insights/future-of-work/retraining-and-reskilling-workers-in-theage-of-automation, accessed 29 October 2018.

Kingma, L. (2018) ‘Universal basic income: The answer to automation’. Futurism.com. Available at: https://futurism.com/images/universal-basic-income-answer-automation/, accessed March 2018.

Maki, R. (2017) ‘The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Human Resources: An age of Experimentation’. Kerridge and Partners.com. Available at https://www.kerridgepartners. com/blog/impact-artificial-intelligence-human-resources-age-experimentation, accessed March 2018.

Maruti Tech Labs (2019) ‘What is Robotic Process Automation? How is RPA Different from Traditional Automation?’ Available at https://www.marutitech.com/robotic-processautomation-vs-traditional-automation.

Meister, J. (2017, November 9) ‘The Future Of Work: How Artificial Intelligence Will Transform The Employee Experience’. Forbes. Available at https://www.forbes.com/ sites/jeannemeister/2017/11/09/the-future-of-work-how-artificial-intelligence-willtransform-the-employee-experience/#6737276323c9, accessed March 2018.

O’Shea, L. (2018, April 25) ‘Tech has no moral code. It is everyone’s job now to fight for one’, The Guardian. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/apr/25/ tech-no-moralcode-racist-ads-cambridge-analytica-technology-ethical-deficit, accessed January 2019.

PwC (2017) Artificial Intelligence in HR: a No-brainer. Available at https://www.pwc.at/de/ publikationen/verschiedenes/artificial-intelligence-in-hr-a-no-brainer.pdf, access 12 December 2018.

Wiggers, K. (2018, November 6) ‘Forrester: 10% of U.S. jobs will be lost to automation in 2019’. VentureBeat.com. Available at https://venturebeat.com/2018/11/06/forrester-10of-u-s-jobs-will-be-lost-to-automation-in-2019, accessed January 2019.

Williams, R. (2018, April), ‘How dying offers us a chance to live the fullest life’, New Statesman. com. Available at https://www.newstatesman.com/culture/books/2018/04/how-dyingoffers-uschance-live-fullest-life, accessed January 2019.

Wislow, E. (2017) ‘Top 5 ways to use artificial intelligence (AI) in human resources’, BigDataMadeSimple. Available at http://bigdata-madesimple.com/5-ways-to-use-artificialintelligence-ai-in-human-resources/, accessed March 2018.

Wisskirchen, G., Biacabe, B. T., Bormann, U., Muntz, A., Niehaus, G., Jiménez Soler, G., and von Brauchitsch, B. (2017) ‘Artificial Intelligence and Robotics and Their Impact on the Workplace’. IBA Global Employment Institute. Available at https://www.ibanet. org/Document/Default.aspx?DocumentUid=c06aa1a3-d355-4866-beda-9a3a8779ba6e, accessed March 2018.
Section
Articles